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It is the direct successor to Windows for professional users and Windows Me for home users. It was released to manufacturing on August 24, , and later to retail on October 25, Development of Windows XP began in the late s under the codename » Neptune «, built on the Windows NT kernel explicitly intended for mainstream consumer use. An updated version of Windows was also initially planned for the business market.
However, in January , both projects were scrapped in favor of a single OS codenamed «Whistler», which would serve as a single platform for both consumer and business markets. Upon its release, Windows XP received critical acclaim, noting increased performance and stability especially compared to Windows Me , a more intuitive user interface, improved hardware support, and expanded multimedia capabilities.
Mainstream support for Windows XP ended on April 14, , and extended support ended on April 8, After that, the operating system ceased receiving further support. After that, unofficial methods were made available to apply the updates to other editions of Windows XP.
Still, Microsoft discouraged this practice, citing incompatibility issues. In the late s, initial development of what would become Windows XP was focused on two individual products: » Odyssey «, which was reportedly intended to succeed the future Windows and » Neptune «, which was reportedly a consumer-oriented operating system using the Windows NT architecture, succeeding the MS-DOS -based Windows However, the projects proved to be too ambitious.
In January , shortly prior to the official release of Windows , technology writer Paul Thurrott reported that Microsoft had shelved both Neptune and Odyssey in favor of a new product codenamed «Whistler», named after Whistler, British Columbia , as many Microsoft employees skied at the Whistler-Blackcomb ski resort. Thurrott stated that Neptune had become «a black hole when all the features that were cut from Windows Me were simply re-tagged as Neptune features.
And since Neptune and Odyssey would be based on the same code-base anyway, it made sense to combine them into a single project». At PDC on July 13, , Microsoft announced that Whistler would be released during the second half of , and also unveiled the first preview build, , which featured an early implementation of Windows XP’s visual styles system and interface changes to Windows Explorer and the Control Panel.
Microsoft released the first public beta build of Whistler, build , on October 31, Subsequent builds gradually introduced features that users of the release version of Windows XP would recognize, such as Internet Explorer 6.
Microsoft had originally planned to use the slogan «Prepare to Fly», but it was replaced because of sensitivity issues in the wake of the September 11 attacks. During a ceremonial media event at Microsoft Redmond Campus , copies of the RTM build were given to representatives of several major PC manufacturers in briefcases , who then flew off on decorated helicopters.
While PC manufacturers would be able to release devices running XP beginning on September 24, , XP was expected to reach general, retail availability on October 25, On the same day, Microsoft also announced the final retail pricing of XP’s two main editions, «Home» as a replacement for Windows Me for home computing and «Professional» as a replacement for Windows for high-end users.
While retaining some similarities to previous versions, Windows XP’s interface was overhauled with a new visual appearance, with an increased use of alpha compositing effects, drop shadows , and » visual styles «, which completely changed the appearance of the operating system.
The number of effects enabled are determined by the operating system based on the computer’s processing power, and can be enabled or disabled on a case-by-case basis. XP also added ClearType , a new subpixel rendering system designed to improve the appearance of fonts on liquid-crystal displays. The Start menu received its first major overhaul in XP, switching to a two-column layout with the ability to list, pin, and display frequently used applications, recently opened documents, and the traditional cascading «All Programs» menu.
The taskbar can now group windows opened by a single application into one taskbar button, with a popup menu listing the individual windows. The notification area also hides «inactive» icons by default. A «common tasks» list was added, and Windows Explorer ‘s sidebar was updated to use a new task-based design with lists of common actions; the tasks displayed are contextually relevant to the type of content in a folder e.
Fast user switching allows additional users to log into a Windows XP machine without existing users having to close their programs and log out. Although only one user at the time can use the console i. Windows XP uses prefetching to improve startup and application launch times.
All Windows licenses must be tied to a unique ID generated using information from the computer hardware , transmitted either via the internet or a telephone hotline. If Windows is not activated within 30 days of installation, the OS will cease to function until it is activated. Windows also periodically verifies the hardware to check for changes. If significant hardware changes are detected, the activation is voided, and Windows must be re-activated.
To enable running software that targets or locks out specific versions of Windows, «Compatibility mode» has been added. The feature allows pretending a selected earlier version of Windows to software, starting at Windows While this ability was first introduced in Windows Service Pack 2, it had to be activated through the » register server » and was only available to administrator users, whereas Windows XP has it activated out of the box and also grants it to regular users.
Some of the programs and features that were part of the previous versions of Windows did not make it to Windows XP. Both editions were made available at retail as pre-loaded software on new computers and as boxed copies. Boxed copies were sold as «Upgrade» or «Full» licenses; the «Upgrade» versions were slightly cheaper, but require an existing version of Windows to install.
The «Full» version can be installed on systems without an operating system or existing version of Windows. Windows 98 or Me can be upgraded to either edition, but Windows NT 4. Two specialized variants of XP were introduced in for certain types of hardware, exclusively through OEM channels as pre-loaded software. The OS is primarily aimed at first-time computer owners, containing heavy localization including wallpapers and screen savers incorporating images of local landmarks , and a «My Support» area which contains video tutorials on basic computing tasks.
It also removes certain «complex» features, and does not allow users to run more than three applications at a time. After a pilot program in India and Thailand , Starter was released in other emerging markets throughout As a result of unfair competition lawsuits in Europe and South Korea , which both alleged that Microsoft had improperly leveraged its status in the PC market to favor its own bundled software, Microsoft was ordered to release special editions of XP in these markets that excluded certain applications.
Consumer interest was minuscule, with roughly 1, units shipped to OEMs , and no reported sales to consumers. A service pack is a cumulative update package that is a superset of all updates, and even service packs, that have been released before it. Service Pack 3 is slightly different, in that it needs at least Service Pack 1 to have been installed, in order to update a live OS.
It contained over minor, post-RTM bug fixes, along with all security patches released since the original release of XP. SP1 also added USB 2. This feature was added to comply with the settlement of United States v. Microsoft Corp. The security improvements codenamed «Springboard»,  as these features were intended to underpin additional changes in Longhorn included a major revision to the included firewall renamed Windows Firewall, and now enabled by default , and an update to Data Execution Prevention , which gained hardware support in the NX bit that can stop some forms of buffer overflow attacks.
Raw socket support is removed which supposedly limits the damage done by zombie machines and the Windows Messenger service which had been abused to cause pop-up advertisements to be displayed as system messages without a web browser or any additional software became disabled by default.
Additionally, security-related improvements were made to e-mail and web browsing. Service Pack 2 also added Security Center , an interface that provides a general overview of the system’s security status, including the state of the firewall and automatic updates. Third-party firewall and antivirus software can also be monitored from Security Center. This was done so that the browser would not violate a patent owned by Eolas.
The third and final Service Pack, SP3, was released through different channels between April  and June ,  about a year after the release of Windows Vista , and about a year before the release of Windows 7.
Service Pack 3 was not available for Windows XP x64 Edition, which was based on the Windows Server kernel and, as a result, used its service packs  rather than the ones for the other editions.
It began being automatically pushed out to Automatic Updates users on July 10, In incorporating all previously released updates not included in SP2, Service Pack 3 included many other key features.
Windows Imaging Component allowed camera vendors to integrate their own proprietary image codecs with the operating system’s features, such as thumbnails and slideshows. NET Framework version 1. Allen, was a former Microsoft employee in Software Quality Assurance and would comb through the Microsoft Knowledge Base articles daily and download new hotfixes Microsoft would put online within the articles.
Microsoft publicly stated at the time that the SP3 pack was unofficial and users should not install it. The maximum amount of RAM that Windows XP can support varies depending on the product edition and the processor architecture. However, XP supports a greater number of logical processors : bit editions support up to 32 logical processors,  and bit editions support up to 64 logical processors.
Several Windows XP components are upgradable to latest versions, which include new versions introduced in later versions of Windows, and other major Microsoft applications are available. These latest versions for Windows XP include:. Support for the original release of Windows XP without a service pack ended on August 30, Analysts felt that the move was primarily intended to compete against Linux -based netbooks, although Microsoft’s Kevin Hutz stated that the decision was due to apparent market demand for low-end computers with Windows.
However, Microsoft advised Windows XP users against installing these fixes, citing incompatibility issues. On April 14, , Windows XP exited mainstream support and entered the extended support phase; Microsoft continued to provide security updates every month for Windows XP, however, free technical support, warranty claims, and design changes were no longer being offered. Extended support ended on April 8, , over 12 years after the release of Windows XP; normally Microsoft products have a support life cycle of only 10 years.
Plans were being made by several ATM vendors and their customers to migrate to Windows 7-based systems over the course of , while vendors have also considered the possibility of using Linux-based platforms in the future to give them more flexibility for support lifecycles, and the ATM Industry Association ATMIA has since endorsed Windows 10 as a further replacement.
These holdouts were influenced by several factors; prices of genuine copies of later versions of Windows in the country are high, while Ni Guangnan of the Chinese Academy of Sciences warned that Windows 8 could allegedly expose users to surveillance by the United States government ,  and the Chinese government would ban the purchase of Windows 8 products for government use in May in protest of Microsoft’s inability to provide «guaranteed» support. As such, government officials formally requested that Microsoft extend the support period for XP for these reasons.
While Microsoft did not comply with their requests, a number of major Chinese software developers, such as Lenovo, Kingsoft and Tencent , will provide free support and resources for Chinese users migrating from XP. On March 8, , Microsoft deployed an update for XP that, on the 8th of each month, displays a pop-up notification to remind users about the end of support; however, these notifications may be disabled by the user.
Despite the approaching end of support, there were still notable holdouts that had not migrated past XP; many users elected to remain on XP because of the poor reception of Windows Vista , sales of newer PCs with newer versions of Windows declined because of the Great Recession and the effects of Vista, and deployments of new versions of Windows in enterprise environments require a large amount of planning, which includes testing applications for compatibility especially those that are dependent on Internet Explorer 6, which is not compatible with newer versions of Windows.
Similarly, specialized devices that run XP, particularly medical devices , must have any revisions to their software—even security updates for the underlying operating system—approved by relevant regulators before they can be released.
For this reason, manufacturers often did not allow any updates to devices’ operating systems, leaving them open to security exploits and malware.
Despite the end of support for Windows XP, Microsoft has released three emergency security updates for the operating system to patch major security vulnerabilities:. Researchers reported in August that Windows 10 users may be at risk for «critical» system compromise because of design flaws of hardware device drivers from multiple providers. On release, Windows XP received critical acclaim. CNET described the operating system as being «worth the hype», considering the new interface to be «spiffier» and more intuitive than previous versions, but feeling that it may «annoy» experienced users with its «hand-holding».
XP’s expanded multimedia support and CD burning functionality were also noted, along with its streamlined networking tools. The performance improvements of XP in comparison to and Me were also praised, along with its increased number of built-in device drivers in comparison to The software compatibility tools were also praised, although it was noted that some programs, particularly older MS-DOS software, may not work correctly on XP because of its differing architecture. They panned Windows XP’s new licensing model and product activation system, considering it to be a «slightly annoying roadblock», but acknowledged Microsoft’s intent for the changes.
Despite extended support for Windows XP ending in , many users — including some enterprises — were reluctant to move away from an operating system they viewed as a stable known quantity despite the many security and functionality improvements in subsequent releases of Windows.
Windows XP’s longevity was viewed as testament to its stability and Microsoft’s successful attempts to keep it up to date, but also as an indictment of its direct successor’s perceived failings. According to web analytics data generated by Net Applications , Windows XP was the most widely used operating system until August , when Windows 7 overtook it later overtaken by Windows 10 ,  while StatCounter indicates it happening almost a year earlier.
Anonymous users managed to compile the code, as well as a Twitter user who posted videos of the process on YouTube proving that the code was genuine.
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